Welding dates back as far as the bronze and iron ages. Since then, many different welding methods have been developed, using, for example, different sources of energy to melt the metals, and allowing new materials to be welded together. The strength and integrity of a weld depend on the base metals and filler materials’ compositions, the welding method, the geometry of the welding joint, etc.
In plants where safety is critical (e.g. power generation, oil and gas), components used in the process line, including welds, are tested at various stages of their lifecycle to ensure integrity and prevent failure.
Handheld x-ray fluorescence (HHXRF) is commonly used to carry out rapid, on-site weld analysis (material identification and chemistry) because of its ease of use and its non-destructive nature. HHXRF enables the user to: